• Imanuel Christian GUP Blitar
Keywords: comparative study, literature of the ancient near east, genesis, enuma elish, creation narrative


This article is an investigation to offer theological ideas about creation narrative based on Ancient Near East cultures. Through historical-cultural approach and using comparative study methods, this article will analyze creation narrative in Genesis 1:1-2:3 through the differences and similarities with Enuma Elish. According to the general assumption of similarities among cultural cults in the Fertile Crescent, this article will explore some theological ideas that the author of the book of Genesis would reveal. The result of the historical-cultural approach reveals that the author of Genesis had interest in to two large frameworks, namely the concept of creator and creation. Regarding the concept of creator, the things that are revealed is the affirmation of monotheism and the absence of theogony and nothingness of divine conflict. Then, regarding the concept of creation, creatio ex nihilo in Genesis 1:1-2:3, orderliness and perfection are the essence and character of creation.


Cornelius, I. (1994). “The Visual Representation of the World in the Ancient Near East and the Hebrew Bible.” Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages, 20(2): 193-218.

Dickson, John P. (2008). “The Genesis of Everything.” ISCAST Online Jurnal, 4: 1-18.

Goldingay, John. (2006). Old Testament Theology: Israel Faith. Vol. 2. Illinois: InterVarsity Press.

Hamilton, Victor P. (1990). The Book of Genesis: Chapter 1-17. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Klein, William W., Craig L. Blomberg., Robert L. Hubbard. (2017). Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Longman III, Tremper. (2016). Panorama Kejadian: Awal Mula Sejarah. Diterjemahkan oleh Paul Hidayat. Jakarta: Scripture Union Indonesia.

Mark, Joshua J. (2018). Eunuma Elish: The Babylonian Epic of Creation. Diunduh 13 Januari 2019, pukul 20.00 WIB.

Ogunlana, Babatunde A. (2016). Inspiration and the Relationship between Genesis 1:1-2:4a and Enuma Elish. Diunduh 17 Januari 2019, pukul 19.00 WIB.

Pritchard, James B. (1969). Ancient Near Eastern Texts: Relating to the Old Testament . Cet. 3. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Pearcy, Nancy. (2004). Total Truth: Liberating Christianity from its Cultural Captivy. Illinois: Crossway Books.

Thorkild, Jacobsen. (1976). The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religious. London: Yale University Press.

Vriezen, T. C. (2016). Agama Israel Kuno. Cet. 9. Diterjemahkan oleh I. J. Crains. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.

Waltke, Bruce K. (2007). An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, Thematic Approach. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Walton, John H. (1990). Ancient Isralite Literature in its Cultural Context: A Survey of Parallels Between Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.

Walton, John H. (2006). Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introduction the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

Walton, John H. (2008). “Creation in Genesis 1:1-2:3 and the Ancient Near East: Order out of Disorder after Chaoskampf.” Calvin Theological Journal, 43: 48-63.

Walton, John H. (2009). The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate. Illinois: IVP Academic.

Wenham, Gordon J. (2002). Genesis 1-15. Word Biblical Commentary 1. Texas: Word Books Publisher.
How to Cite
Christian, I. (2019, August 2). STUDI LITERATUR PENCIPTAAN TIMUR DEKAT KUNO. Pengarah: Jurnal Teologi Kristen, 1(2), 121-128.